[Tig] The old days

John Buck 卜克強 velocite at gmail.com
Sat Nov 27 07:04:59 GMT 2010


At the risk of being laughed at, these might sound like dumb questions but I am trying to resolve in my mind
what I thought I understood! as I complete my book called "Timeline".

There are many crossed paths and convergences between film and electronic editing and
I wanted to get them right

So here goes:

Before the invention of professional videotape in 1956, television programs were created on film
and shot on negative, then edited/cut using work prints, and then assembled into a final form by cutting the negative
into the completed program which was then broadcast by placing film prints struck from the negative
on telecine chains that used some form of electronics to get it to transmission equipment?

or some programs like quiz shows were simply broadcast live from electronic studio cameras through studio mixers and 
then transmission equipment to the U.S (and Australian) East coast.

The only way to 'play' material onto the west coast was by filming a live broadcast as it happened from 
a monitor with a film camera, then take those rushes to a lab and print, re-sync the original live audio 
and then use telecine chains with some form of electronics to get it to transmission equipment for the same timeslot? 
Kinnies.

Then AT&T (and Australia's PMG) completed a cross country microwave network and Ampex released the Quad 2" machine
which allowed live programs to be broadcast live on the east coast but be recorded simultaneously on the west coast
onto video and then played back in the correct timeslot. End of Kinnies.

Then Rank invented the first flying spot scanner chain in the 1950s which allowed a film negative to be
transferred to tape at sufficient quality for use as an offline source to edit a program (instead of a work print)
and then take the same finishing route for broadcast....edit negative, create final program, strike release prints.

Ampex and EECO and others invented ways of editing videotape rather crudley but this allowed over length materials to
be shortened and played back. With a series of iterations electronic editing progressed to assemble and insert editing
and then timecode was standardised.

Then Rank and others improved the quality of telecine transfers to match that of  the quality of images delivered by 
new next generation 1" tape machines by Sony and Ampex and broadcast quality images could go straight to tape for 
editing and then broadcasting

Love some feedback

John


 On 28/02/2010, at 3:36 PM, Rob Lingelbach wrote:

> 
> On Feb 27, 2010, at 10:23 PM, John Buck / Velocite wrote:
> 
>> Hello Rob
>> 
>> I hope this finds you well and enjoying the week. In the research for 
> 
> Hopefully someone else will know more than I do, which I posted to the group.
> 
> Rob
> --
> Rob Lingelbach
> rob at colorist.org
> 


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